An argument that goes nowhere. Though a person believes he or she is arguing a point, the argument does not progress because the individual has an fixed and immovable belief that is considered to be a fact and this is the core point of the argument, which in their belief system, is actually not debatable. The Negative Ego tends to exert Mental Rigidity which fixates on polarizing belief systems on right and wrong, black and white, Splitting behaviors that compartmentalize thinking into Circular Reasoning and Linear Thinking.
Circular reasoning is when you attempt to make an argument by beginning with an assumption that what you are trying to prove is already true. In your premise, you already accept the truth of the claim you are attempting to make. It sounds complicated, but it is easily understood with some real-world examples.
Circular reasoning may sound convincing, but consider who will most likely be convinced by a circular argument. Those who already accept the argument as true are more likely to be further convinced. This is because they already believe the assumption that is stated.
Examples of Circular Reasoning:
- The Bible is true, so you should not doubt the Word of God.
This argument rests on your prior acceptance of the Bible as truth. Therefore in the belief system and mind of this person, this is a fact that is not debatable.
A fallacy is an argument or belief based on erroneous reasoning, usually designed to attack or gaslight an opponent. Straw man is one type of logical fallacy. Straw man occurs when someone argues that a person holds a view that is actually not what the other person believes. Instead, it is a distorted version of what the person believes. So, instead of attacking the person's actual statement or belief, it is the distorted version that is attacked, when the targeted person never made the statement to begin with. The basic assumption is that if one small part of an argument can be proved false then, by association, the whole argument is also false. A weak argument is one made of straw that is easily knocked over. Hence the term straw man. 
Red herring is a kind of fallacy that is an irrelevant topic introduced in an argument to divert the attention of listeners or readers from the original issue. In literature, this fallacy is often used in detective or suspense novels to mislead readers or characters, or to induce them to make false conclusions.
Manipulators use red herrings to lay a false trail that leads people away from areas that you do not want them to see. To do this, the trail must be of sufficient interest that the other person misses any clues to other areas. Red herrings are particularly useful when the activity is time-bound. Time spent following the red herring is time that can not be spent looking in other areas. Talking about problems that are not really problems has effects beyond distraction. 
A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument. A fallacious argument may be deceptive by appearing to be better than it really is. Some fallacies are committed intentionally to manipulate or persuade by deception, while others are committed unintentionally due to carelessness or ignorance. The soundness of legal arguments depends on the context in which the arguments are made. 
A non sequitur (Classical Latin: "it does not follow") is a conversational literary device, often used for comedic purposes or to confuse the audience. It is something said that, because of its apparent lack of meaning relative to what preceded it, seems absurd to the point of being humorous or confusing.  See Absurdism.
Confirmation Bias is the strong human tendency to dismiss or distort evidence or facts that are contrary to our acceptable beliefs formed by our Mental Map and readily seek out any kind of evidence that supports our views.
Begging the question
Begging the question is a type of circular reasoning, an argument that requires that the desired conclusion be considered to be true, whether it is true or not. This often occurs in an indirect way such that the fallacy's presence is being hidden, or at least not easily apparent. Begging the question is often used to mean "raising the question" or "suggesting the question". Sometimes it is confused with "dodging the question", which is an evasion technique used in an attempt to avoid answering the question.